Experiments

During the project, there have been two experiment phases to show the standing waves. The first phase was the start of the project. In this phase, many different tests have been carried out. After analysis of this first phase there are made conclusions. The conclusions made changes in the experiment for the second phase. During this phase, the tests were detailed with more analysis.

Experiment phase 1 

In the first phase the following equipment have been used. The tube can be made of plastic or glass (bottle). Beside the tube there is a substance. In this experiment there have been tests with the following substances, namely flour, plastic balls and styrofoam balls. To make the sound, a speaker and signal generator are also needed. 

Experiment 1 - Plastic tube with flour 

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that flour is not a good substance to use in this experiment. This is because the flour is too sticky. It stacked into the tube and had no possibility to move. There were no different observations between a closed or open tube. 

Experiment 2 - Plastic tube with plastic balls

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that the plastic balls are no good substance to use in this experiment. This is because the plastic balls are to heavy and don't have the possibility to move. There are no different observations between a closed or open tube. 

Experiment 3 -Plastic tube with styrofoam balls

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that styrofoam balls are the best substance to use in this experiment, but it was still not possible to observe the standing waves. This is maybe because of the length of the plastic tube. 

Experiment 4 - Bottle with plastic balls

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that the plastic balls are still not a good substance to use in this experiment. Even when the the surface reduced from the plastic tube to the small bottle of the glass tube. 

Experiment 5 - Bottle with styrofoam balls

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that by using the styrofoam balls and reducing the surface it is still not possible to observe the standing waves. This is maybe because of the power range of the speaker.

Concluded to experiment phase 1 it is possible to say that the equipment that have been used isn't enough to show the standing waves. According to the substance, the styrofoam balls are the best material because they are the lightest substance. According to the sound, there's more power needed. This can be achieved by changing the speaker to a speaker with more power. Also, the tube need to be closed. This is possible by closing it with a piston and make a support to keep the tube closed.

After these conclusions the experiment phase 2 can be started. 

Experiment phase 2 

To move on to the previous experiment there have been a change in the equipment. There are two different constructions in this phase. The first one is with a small glass tube of 35 cm, with a small speaker with the power of 5 till 8 Watt. The second one is a big plastic tube of 100/150 cm. The different in length is because of using a piston. There's used a speaker with the power of 30 till 50 Watt. To add more power there's been used an amplifier and a power source. In both constructions, the substance that have been used are styrofoam balls. 

Experiment 1 - Glass tube: 35 cm 

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After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that it is possible to observe the standing waves. In this set of tests it is possible to say that the quantity of substance in the tube influence the results. 
The tests have been performed with 50cm, 200cm and 250cm tube graduation. After these tests, there is concluded that the 250-cm tube graduation is the best to observe the standing waves. 

Experiment 2 - Plastic tube: 35 cm 

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After the conclusion of the previous experiment with the glass tube of 35 cm, there is decided to make the same experiment with a plastic tube of 35 cm. After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that it is not possible to observe the standing waves the same as the glass tube experiment. It is possible to observe a little vibration, but not the standing wave towers. 

Experiment 3 - Plastic tube: 100/150 cm 

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After the conclusion of the previous experiment with the plastic tube of 35 cm, there is decided to make the experiment with a long plastic tube that can be changed in the length because of the use of a piston. We tested with two different lengths, namely 100cm and 150cm. After carried out this experiment, there is concluded that with both of the lengths it is possible to observe the standing waves. The difference that is observed is that there are different frequencies for the standing waves.